2.11 Points to Remember
The Stuart Dynasty
- James I came to the English throne (1603) and founded the Stuart Dynasty.
- Charles I succeeded him. Both of them had conflicts with their parliament. Civil war broke out during his reign and he was executed (1649).
- Oliver Cromwell ran the government from 1649 to 1658.
The Thirty Years’ War
- This war was basically political and religious.
- It broke out in Germany in 1618 because of the growing animosity between the Protestants, and the Catholics.
France and Richelieu
- Cardinal Richelieu was the advisor of the Queen of France.
- He was the most influential figure in European history.
- His objectives were absolute supremacy for the French King and the defeat of rival authorities.
- His internal policies promoted obedience and unity.
Decline of Spain
- Religion and politics were the new forces in Spain.
- Politics was subordinate to religion for Philip, the ruler of Spain.
- Domestic and foreign policy hastened the decline of Spanish power and prestige.
- Lack of concentration on a single project brought about the fall of Spain.
The Civil War in England
- It occurred during the reign of Charles I, the King on one side and the people’s parliament on the other.
- Charles I was executed, and Commonwealth was established.
The Age of Reason
- Most of the Philosophers were born in this Age
- People believed that reason could free them from of their ills and lead them to peace, security, a good government and an ideal society.
- This sort of thinking led to the progress of humanity and entire society.
- This war was fought between England and Holland.
- Both countries had commercial rivalry.
- England won the war in 1665.
Peter the Great
- He was a great statesman of Russia.
- He had a sharp observation and his mind was open to new ideas.
- He transformed the nation from to a modern and complete westernized one.
The Spanish succession
- Queen Anne’s reign was mostly dominated by the question of Spanish succession.
- It was landmark event in the world history.
- It involved a bloodless revolution.
- It implied the success of the people’s parliament.
- James II (King of England) fled from England.
- he throne was passed to his daughter and son-in law.
2.1 The Stuart Dynasty
2.2 The Thirty Years' War
2.3 France and Richelieu
2.4 The Decline Of Spain under Philip II
2.5 The English Civil War (1642-1649)
2.6 The Age of Reason and Enlightenment
2.7 The Anglo-Dutch Wars
2.8 Peter, the Great
2.9 The Spanish Succession
2.10 The Glorious Revolution
2.11 Points to Remember
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