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CHAPTER 5 : EUROPE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (1917 - 1945)

5.0 Introduction

This chapter deals with the political developments in the first half of the present century. The Bolshevik Revolution was successful in establishing communism in Russia in 1917. This was a result of the autocratic czarist regime. All power rested in the hands of the Emperor. The common people were unhappy. They were impressed by democratic governments all over Europe. Besides this, the people were also assured that their participation in the First World War was for the good of their countrymen. The masses were not ready to suffer anymore.

Germany suffered greatly when she was broken up after the First World War. A number of political parties came up. The party belonging to Hitler was gaining in importance. The Election results demonstrated that the public favored the National Socialist Workers Party (Nazis). Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany. All power was in his hands.

Fascism in Italy was also a product of the existing socio-economic and political conditions in the nation. Mussoliniís party worked for the betterment of the nation. The workers wore the black shirts as their uniform. The ambition of dictators, the humiliating treaty of Versailles, nationalism, race for arms and the failure of the League of Nations contributed towards the occurrence of the Second World War. There was a heavy loss of life and property in this War. Atom bombs were used. The social, economic and political conditions of people all over Europe and North Africa were greatly. America and Russia became world powers.

However, the world felt the requirement of a strong organization such as the U.N.O. for solving international disputes between nations. 50 Nations assembled in San Francisco to sign the charter that defined the aims, objectives and principles of the organization.

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Index

5.0 Introduction
5.1 The Russian Revolution
5.2 NAZI Germany
5.3 Fascism in Italy
5.4 The Second Great War
5.5 Impact of the Second Great War
5.6 The Establishment of the U.N.O.
5.7 Points to Remember

Chapter 6


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