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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-World History

1.5 The Medieval Period

The Medieval period began in Europe with the end of the Dark Age and thus law and order was restored. It lasted from the 11th century to the 14th century Europe, which had experienced anarchy during the Dark Age, gradually recovered and built a new culture, which was a combination of the features of the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, and those of the life of the barbarians. Christianity played an important role in the generation of medieval European civilization, which had several achievements.

Feudalism, an organization based on land tenure, was an important feature of this period. During the Middle Ages, there was the growth of a national identity in Europe. Nations like England, France, Hungary, Denmark, Norway and others sprung into being. At this time, guilds were organized in cities and town. The church provided spiritual food to the people and rendered useful social service. Liberal arts were studied and universities were established. A vast mass of literature was produced in Latin and in the vernaculars. New styles of art and architecture developed and much progress was achieved in Science. Thus, during this formative period, Europe and Asia fell victims to the cruel nomadic hordes of the Mongols. The Mongol rule established a link between the east and the west thus Europe was enriched by the impact of the Chinese civilization.

The Ottoman Turks became prominent in the 11th century. The Turks had a great ambition to conquer Constantinople and in 1453, Sultan Muhammad II attacked it successfully. The fall of Constantinople is regarded as a great landmark in world history, as it marked the beginning of the modern times.

In India the medieval period extended from the death of Harsha in 647 AD, to the Mughal invasion in 1526 AD. It was a period of transition that witnessed the rise of several states. The Rajputs played an important role in North India, until the Muslim invasion. The Arabs were the first Muslims to come to India. Three centuries after the Arab invasion, the Turks established their power in India. The Muslim dynasties ruling India, during the medieval period, with Delhi as their capital, were the Slave, the Khilji, the Tughlak, the Sayyid and Lodi. The two kingdoms that rose to power in the south were the Hindu kingdom of Vijaynagar, established in 1336, and the Bahmani kingdom of the Muslims, established in 1347.

Babar, a descendant of Timur (a great leader of the Mongol-Tartar hordes), became the founder of the Mughal Empire in India.


1.0 - Introduction
1.1 History: Meaning and Importance
1.2 Pre-historic Period
1.3 Early Civilizations
1.4 The Dark Age
1.5 The Medieval Period
1.6 Dates & Events
1.7 Points to Remember

Chapter 2


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