13.7 Dates & Events

Oct 1910 - Revolution in Portugal.

1919 - Mussolini forms a political party which he names as Fascisti.

1920-1921 - Civil war between the Fascists and the Radicals. The Fascists are victorious.

1921-1922 - The Washington Conference.

1922 - Mussolini gives an ultimatum that the reigns of the
government should be handed over to them.

Oct 30, 1922 - King Victor Emmanuel III invites Mussolini to form the government in Rome.

1923 - Mussolini obtains dictatorial powers.

1924 - The Dawes Plan.

1925 - The Locarno Treaty.Hitler rebuilds the Nazi party.

May 1926 - Military dictatorship is established in Portugal.

July 1926 - General Antonio Oscar Carmona becomes the head of the provisional government

Mar 1928 - Carmona is elected as the President of the new Republic.

1929 - The World Economic Crisis.
Mussolini signs Lateran Treaties with the Pope of Rome.

Jan 1930 - General Miguel Primo de Riviera of Spain resigns from his office.

Mar 1930 - General Miguel dies.

1931 - Japan invades Manchuria.

A Republic was established in Spain under the leadership
of Zamora.

1932 - Hitler acquires a German Citizenship.

1933 - The Nazi party acquired 44% seats in the Reichstag 
 (German Parliament)
In the elections held in November (in Spain) the Moderate

Republicans defeat the Radicals and the Socialists under

the leadership of Lennoux.

1934 - A National Council of Corporations is formed to replace
 the parliament.

June 1934 - Hitler slaughters thousands of socialists for treason.

Aug 1934 - After the death of President Hindenburg Hitler becomes an absolute ruler and is called the Führer.

1935 - Italy invades Ethiopia.
Germany reintroduces military conscription thus violating Part V of the Treaty of Versailles.

1936 - Italy annexes Ethiopia.
Italy and Germany enter into a close alliance Known as the Rome-Berlin Axis.
Hitler dispatches troops to remilitarize Rhineland.
General Franco of Spain leads a rebellion as a Nationalist of Falange Party supported by Italy and Germany.
The Spanish Civil War started between Nationalists and Republicans.
In the elections held in Spain the Popular Front secured a majority and formed the government.

July 1936 - General Francisco Franco and other officers revolted against the Popular Front government.

Nov 1936 - General Franco forms the government.

1937 - Italy enters the Anti-Comintern Pact against Russia.

1939 - The fighting ends when Barcelona Valencia and Madrid fall to the Nationalist. General Franco is declared "Caudillo (leader) of the Realm and Head of state." He ruled till 1975. Spain was neutral during World War II.

Mar 1939 - Hitler invades and annexes Czechoslovakia.

Aug 1939 - Germany signs Non-Aggression Pact with the Soviets.

Sept 1, 1939 - Hitler launches an armed attack on Poland.

Sept 3, 1939 - Britain and France declare war on Germany.

1940 - Italy enters First World War.

1943 - Italy surrenders officially.

May 1945 - Germany surrenders and Hitler commits suicide.

Apr 1951 - General Carmona passes away.

Nov 1975 - General Franco passes away.

[next page]


13.0 - Introduction
13.1 Causes of the Growth of Dictatorships in Europe
13.2 The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Italy
13.3 The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Germany
13.4 The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Spain
13.5 The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Portugal
13.6 Significance and Impact of Dictatorships in Europe
13.7 Dates & Events
13.8 Points to Remember

Chapter 14

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