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11. Think in terms of two things: the objects of Swift's satire, and the techniques that go into Swift's satire.
Think back over the novel. In Part I, for example, Swift satirizes the court of George I. His primary satirical device here is allegory-the Lilliputian government leaders stand for Whig leaders in the tumultuous years between 1708 and 1726. In Part II it is Gulliver who represents English attitudes Swift wishes to criticize. In Part III the Projectors are allegories for certain members of the Royal Society, whom Swift was attacking satirically. In Part IV the allegories are not so clear-cut; the Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are both exaggerated representations. Just as the Houyhnhnms aren't intended to represent Swift's human ideal, neither do the Yahoos represent his opinion of mankind. It is Gulliver, because he can't see Swift's distinction, who is the brunt of Swift's satire.
Go through the book carefully, taking special note of the ways in which Swift uses allegory, irony, and shifts in perspective to launch his attacks.
12. Compare the Lilliputian emperor with the Brobdingnagian king. Also, consider
the role of government in the funding of scientific and academic research.
Think in terms of Part III as you reflect on the second part of this question.
13. Start by examining the attitudes and practices of the Lilliputians, the many ways in which they are small. Then take a close at look at Gulliver and the ways in which he's Lilliputian compared to the king of Brobdingnag. Don't forget to reflect on the Laputans and Projectors and the extent to which they allow themselves to be cut off from the world because of their individual abstract preoccupations.
14. Think about Gulliver and the restraint, patience, and faithfulness to justice he shows in Part I. Consider the king of Brobdingnag, the kindness he and his wife show Gulliver, and the ways in which he governs his country. Think, too, of the courtesy he shows Gulliver even after Gulliver tells him about gunpowder. As you're answering this question break down the Houyhnhnm composite. Owing to their great stores of reason, the Houyhnhnms have eradicated vices such as lying, corruption, infidelity, etc., from their society. In certain ways their society does reflect the best we're capable of-enduring peace, for one. Don't forget Captain Pedro de Mendez, who is exceedingly kind to Gulliver at the end of Part IV.
15. In answering Question 14 you thought about the admirable aspects of a society governed entirely by reason. Now think about the aspects of life among the Houyhnhnms that are less attractive, less desirable, less human. For example, there is no feeling of kinship among the Houyhnhnms. Neither is there any such thing as falling in love. The personal joys connected with conceiving a baby, giving birth, and raising a family are nonexistent. Even life itself seems less precious-no one minds dying, and no one mourns the death of anyone else.