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Free Study Guide-Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes-Free Online Book Notes
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Author Information

Daniel Keyes was born in New York and had a varied and interesting career profile, before he settled down to creative writing. He has worked in the US Maritime Service, and then he worked as an editor and a fashion photographer. Meanwhile, he got a B.A degree in psychology, a subject that has been of enduring interest to him.

Still later, Keyes taught English in city schools in New York, and simultaneously worked for his post-graduate degree in English and American literature. After getting his M.A., he has taught Creative writing at Wayne State University and Ohio University, where he was a professor.

Flowers For Algernon was his first novel and won the Nebula Award for the Best Novel of the year, from the Science Fiction Writers of America. First published in 1966 by Harcourt and in 1968 by Bantam, the novel, initially enlarged from a short story, has been through over thirty printings. It has, since then, been produced as a stage play and as a musical in England, France, the US, Poland and Japan. The novel was also adapted for the movies under the name ‘Charly.’ Cliff Robertson, in the title role, won an Oscar.

Obviously fascinated by psychology and having majored in the subject, Keyes went on to write three more novels with a psychological background. The Touch - (1968) on the terrible effects of a radiation accident; The Fifth Sally (1980) whose subject is the multiple personality disorder; and Until Death about a double murder in Florida. He has also written the following books in the category of non-fiction: The Minds of Billy Milligan (1981) an award winning study of a man acquitted of guilt for serious crimes on account of multiple personality disorder. This was followed by The Milligan Wars: A True Story Sequel (1994). In 1986, he wrote Unveiling Claudia about the secrets behind a woman’s false confession to murder.


The novel is very much a part of popular fiction. Thus, Keyes has varied the mood throughout the book, and rarely allowed it to get too heavy or solemn. In spite of the hero being mentally retarded or perhaps because of it, there is a lot of humor in the introductory section. This gentle laughter gives way to excitement, as Charlie finds himself able to understand whole worlds of knowledge that he never knew existed! Interspersed with this, are the disturbing memories of his family. The seriousness of the mood deepens, as Charlie begins to view people around him with increasing skepticism and even disillusion. His frustration in love depresses him immensely and evokes ugly flashes from his adolescence.

At the climax, at the Chicago convention there is a farcical scene, with underlying bitterness. The sight of the learned gathering ‘chasing a white mouse smarter than many of them’ is hilarious. But this humor is superficial - almost macabre (black humor).

The poignancy of his visits to his father, and then to his mother and sister is heightened by the knowledge that they don’t know about his approaching decline. There is a brief respite with the fascinating Fay and later the intense rapture of fulfillment with Alice. But the rest of this section captures the deep anguish of a human being who has enjoyed the heady heights of mental activity, only to know that it is being snatched away, and even his mind is not his own to keep. As in classical tragedy, when the suffering reaches an unbearable pitch, the individual, wanting to keep his dignity intact, pulls himself together and forces himself to accept his fate. This is how the novel ends.

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