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Catch-22 mainly deals with Yossarian’s attempts to survive in, and ultimately to escape from, a world of absurdity and maddening contradiction. Yossarian struggles to be free from the scope of an illogical law framed by the military bureaucracy: Catch-22.
One needs companionship and understanding in a world devoid of meaning. At the end of the novel, Yossarian is able to plan his escape with the help of the chaplain.
Heller uses elements of "black humor" and the "absurd" in order to expose the brutality and callousness of the bureaucratic system. These make the scenario of his novel seem bizarre, if not farcically inhuman. Throughout the novel, Yossarian’s mind is full of thoughts of death. But, the novel ends on a note of optimism and hope as Yossarian tries to emulate Orr’s escape to Sweden and freedom.