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nobleman in the Kingdom, who had been condemned by a sentence so unjust
and tyrannical.’Hume’s England, vol. iii, p 307.

*(8) He refers to the order of baronets, or baronettes-the barones minor, as
distinct from the parliamentary barons;- not, it need hardly be said, the baronets
of later creation.

*(9) The lords of Kingsale, descendants of De Courcy, still enjoy this curious

*(10) Hume.
*(11) Hume.
*(12) The Whipping-Boy. James I and Charles II had whipping-boys when they
were little fellows, to take their punishment for them when they fell short in
their lessons; so I have ventured to furnish my small prince with one, for my
own purposes.

*(13) Character of Hertford. The young king discovered an extreme attachment
to his uncle, who was, in the main, a man of moderation and probity.Hume’s
England, vol. iii, p. 324.

But if he (the Protector) gave offense by assuming too much state, he deserves
great praise on account of the laws passed this session, by which the rigor of
former statutes was much mitigated, and some security given to the freedom of
the constitution. All laws were repealed which extended the crime of treason
beyond the statute of the twenty-fifth of Edward III; all laws enacted during the
late reign extending the crime of felony; all the former laws against Lollardy or
heresy, together with the statute of the Six Articles. None were to be accused for
words, but within a month after they were spoken. By these repeals several of
the most rigorous laws that ever had passed in England were annulled; and
some dawn, both of civil and religious liberty, began to appear to the people. A
repeal also passed of that law, the destruction of all laws, by which the king’s
proclamation was made of equal force with a statute.- Ibid., vol. iii, p. 339.

Boiling to Death. In the reign of Henry VIII, poisoners were, by act of parliament
condemned to be boiled to death. This act was repealed in the following reign.

In Germany, even in the 17 th century, this horrible punishment was inflicted on
coiners and counterfeiters. Taylor, the Water Poet, describes an execution he
witnessed in Hamburg, in 1616. The judgement pronounced against a coiner of
false money was that he should ‘be boiled to death in oil: not thrown into the
vessel at once, but with a pulley or rope to be hanged under the armpits, and
then let down into the oil by degrees; first the feet, and next the legs, and so to
boil his flesh from his bones alive.’- Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull’s ‘Blue Laws,
True and False,’ p. 13.
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