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shadow, and that peculiar carriage of the head while in the light-
all reinforced the theory of an extreme sensitiveness of the retina.
‘Beneath my feet, then, the earth must be tunnelled enormously,
and these tunnellings were the habitat of the new race. The
presence of ventilating shafts and wells along the hill slopes-
everywhere, in fact, except along the river valleyshowed how
universal were its ramifications. What so natural, then, as to
assume that it was in this artificial Under-world that such work as
was necessary to the comfort of the daylight race was done? The
notion was so plausible that I at once accepted it, and went on to
assume the how of this splitting of the human species.

I dare say you will anticipate the shape of my theory; though, for
myself, I very soon felt that it fell far short of the truth.

‘At first, proceeding from the problems of our own age, it seemed
clear as daylight to me that the gradual widening of the present
merely temporary and social difference between the Capitalist and
the Labourer, was the key to the whole position. No doubt it will
seem grotesque enough to you-and wildly incredible!and yet even
now there are existing circumstances to point that way. There is a
tendency to utilize underground space for the less ornamental
purposes of civilization; there is the Metropolitan Railway in
London, for instance, there are new electric railways, there are
subways, there are underground workrooms and restaurants, and
they increase and multiply. Evidently, I thought, this tendency had
increased till Industry had gradually lost its birthright in the sky. I
mean that it had gone deeper and deeper into larger and ever
larger underground factories, spending a still-increasing amount of
its time therein, till, in the end-! Even now, does not an East-end
worker live in such artificial conditions as practically to be cut off
from the natural surface of the earth? ‘Again, the exclusive
tendency of richer people-due, no doubt, to the increasing
refinement of their education, and the widening gulf between them
and the rude violence of the poor-is already leading to the closing,
in their interest, of considerable portions of the surface of the land.
About London, for instance, perhaps half the prettier country is
shut in against intrusion. And this same widening gulf-which is
due to the length and expense of the higher educational process
and the increased facilities for and temptations towards refined
habits on the part of the rich-will make that exchange between
class and class, that promotion by intermarriage which at present
retards the splitting of our species along lines of social
stratification, less and less frequent. So, in the end, above ground
you must have the Haves, pursuing pleasure and comfort and
beauty, and below ground the Have-nots, the Workers getting
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