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Chart 5.1
Main Indicator Words

Additive words. These say, "Here's more of the same coming up. It's just as important as what we have already said."
also                    further                 moreover
and                     furthermore             too
besides                 in addition
Equivalent words. These say, "Both what I have just said, and this too."
as well as              equally important       similarly
at the same time        likewise
Amplification words. With these, the speaker is saying, "I want to be sure that you understand my idea; so here's a specific instance."
as                      in fact                 such as
for example (e.g.)      like                    that is
for instance            specifically            to illustrate
Alternative words. These words say, "Sometimes there is a choice; at other times there isn't."
either/or               other than              otherwise
neither/nor
Repetitive words. These say, "I said it once, but I'm going to say it again in case you missed it the first time."
again                   in other words          that is (i.e.)
to repeat
Contrast and change words. "So far I've given you only one side of the story; now let's take a look at the other side."
but                     instead of              regardless
conversely              on the contrary         still
despite                 on the other hand       though
even though             nevertheless            whereas
however                 notwithstanding         yet
in spite of             rather than
Cause and effect words. "All this has happened; now I'll tell you why."
accordingly             for this reason         then
as a result             hence                   therefore
because                 since                   thus
consequently            so
Qualifying words. These say, "Here is what we can expect; these are the conditions we are working under."
although                providing               whenever
if                      unless
Concession words. These say, "Okay!" We agree on this much."
accepting the data      granted that            of course
even though
Emphasizing words. These say, "Wake up and take notice!"
above all               indeed                  more important
Order words. With these, the author is saying, "You keep your mind on reading; I'll keep the numbers straight."
finally                 last                    second
first                   next                    then
Time words. "Let's keep the record straight on who said what and especially when."
afterwards              meanwhile               subsequently
at the same time        next                    then
before                  now                     ultimately
formerly                presently               until
later                   previously              while
Summarizing words. These say, "We've said many things so far. Let's stop here and pull them together."
briefly                 in brief                to summarize
for these reasons       in conclusion           to sum up

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