CHAPTER 5 : EUROPE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (1917
This chapter deals with the political developments in
the first half of the present century. The Bolshevik Revolution was successful
in establishing communism in Russia in 1917. This was a result of the
autocratic czarist regime. All power rested in the hands of the Emperor.
The common people were unhappy. They were impressed by democratic governments
all over Europe. Besides this, the people were also assured that their
participation in the First World War was for the good of their countrymen.
The masses were not ready to suffer anymore.
Germany suffered greatly when she was broken up after
the First World War. A number of political parties came up. The
party belonging to Hitler was gaining in importance. The Election
results demonstrated that the public favored the National Socialist
Workers Party (Nazis). Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany.
All power was in his hands.
Fascism in Italy was also a product of the existing socio-economic
and political conditions in the nation. Mussoliniís party worked for the
betterment of the nation. The workers wore the black shirts as their uniform.
The ambition of dictators, the humiliating treaty of Versailles, nationalism,
race for arms and the failure of the League of Nations contributed towards
the occurrence of the Second World War. There was a heavy loss of life
and property in this War. Atom bombs were used. The social, economic and
political conditions of people all over Europe and North Africa were greatly.
America and Russia became world powers.
However, the world felt the requirement of a strong organization
such as the U.N.O. for solving international disputes between nations.
50 Nations assembled in San Francisco to sign the charter that defined
the aims, objectives and principles of the organization.