The primary intention of the author as being the definition of the various types of understanding an adolescent should possess for the development of a political ideology is quite clearly stated in the earlier half of the passage.
The entire passage talks about and discusses the need of an intuitive understanding of the existing relationship between different components of society for the development of a political ideology in an adolescent.
This meaning of the phrase referred to is clear from a reading of the sentence it is used in.
A reading of the entire passage clearly points out to the possibility of Choice B being the statement the author is likely to agree with regarding schools.
That choice D is the most difficult for the young adolescent to understand is clear from the last paragraph of the given passage.
This is clearly stated in lines 56-60 of the given passage.
The options are not correct and digress from the point.
Fulmination means to express censure loudly and forcefully or to explode violently. Its antonym has to be ‘praise.’ The other choices are inapplicable.
Distend is to have an extended or swollen stretch out by pressure from within. Its opposite has to be constrict.