This structure was amenable to account for isotopes as well, for example
However, Heisenberg's uncertainty relations implied that electrons cannot be permanent constituents
of the nuclei. Moreover the stability of nucleus was still in jeopardy because the Coulomb interaction
between protons which are in greater number than electrons- cannot be offset by the interaction
between protons and electrons. Therefore, instead of free states of protons and electrons in a nucleus, it
was assured that each pair of proton and electron is in a bound state; this bound state is obviously
electrically neutral and has almost the same mass as the proton. It was called a neutron. Neutron as an
independent entity was discovered by Chadwick in 1932. The current understanding of the structure of nucleus is
that it is made up of z number of protons, N = A - Z number of neutrons where A is mass number. Of
course in orbits around the nucleus there are z-electrons to form the atom.
34.1 Laws of radio - active transmutation
34.2 Law of radio - active decay
34.3 Half - Life period : T
34.4 Mean Life Time : t
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