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This structure was amenable to account for isotopes as well, for example

However, Heisenberg's uncertainty relations implied that electrons cannot be permanent constituents of the nuclei. Moreover the stability of nucleus was still in jeopardy because the Coulomb interaction between protons which are in greater number than electrons- cannot be offset by the interaction between protons and electrons. Therefore, instead of free states of protons and electrons in a nucleus, it was assured that each pair of proton and electron is in a bound state; this bound state is obviously electrically neutral and has almost the same mass as the proton. It was called a neutron. Neutron as an independent entity was discovered by Chadwick in 1932. The current understanding of the structure of nucleus is that it is made up of z number of protons, N = A - Z number of neutrons where A is mass number. Of course in orbits around the nucleus there are z-electrons to form the atom.

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34.1 Laws of radio - active transmutation
34.2 Law of radio - active decay
34.3 Half - Life period : T
34.4 Mean Life Time : t

Chapter 35

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