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2.2 Analogy

In this section you are asked to assess the relationship between a pair of words that is given to you (in capital letters) and then to recognize a similar or parallel relationship in another pair included as one of the five multiple-hoice answers given. Here is an example of an analogy question:

Each question below consists of a related pair of words or phrases, followed by five pairs of words or phrases. Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.

ARTIST : PAINTING
(A)    driver : car
(B)    pedestrian : road
(C)    composer : symphony
(D)    surgeon : operation
(E)    mailman : letter

The correct answer is (C). Just as an artist creates a painting a composer creates a symphony.

COMMON ANALOGY TYPES ARE

Definition - tailor : sew

Defining Characteristic - stable : horse

Class and Number - tragedy : drama , cow : mammal

Antonyms - bright : dull

Antonym Variation - Here the parts of speech are different.
For instance, disobedient : obedience

Synonyms - polite : courteous

Synonym Variation - frivolous : silliness

Degree of Intensity - sip : gulp

Part to Whole - toe : foot

Function - feet : walk

Manner - strut : walk

Articles made by a worker - Artist : painting

The worker and his tools - Artist : paintbrush

The worker and his task - teacher : teaches

The worker and the work place - teller : bank

The tool and the object - scissors : paper

The tool and the action - scissors : cut

Symbols - hawk : warlike

Actions and their Significance - smile : pleasure

Cause and effect - bacteria : infection

Sequence of Time and Space - beginning : end ; cellar : attic

Gender - duke : duchess

Age - calf : cow

Some Strategies for Use

  1. Try and form a sentence expressing the relationship between the pair of head words. Then apply the same sentence to other pairs to see if it works. Look at our earlier example.

  2. Make sure that the answer choice does not reverse the original relationship. For instance, if the head words are Artist : painting do not choose symphony : composer.

  3. If you find that more than one choice fits the relationship in your sentence then choose the one that is more specific and narrow down the choices or reframe your sentence.

  4. Look carefully at the parts of speech specially in the synonym and antonym variation questions.

  5. Look for secondary meanings of words if the primary ones do not seem to fit. For instance, a spade is a garden tool as well as a suit of cards.

  6. If you do not know the meaning of a word try and place it within a context, and then see what sense it makes.

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Index

PART II

2.1 Sentence Completion
2.2 Analogy
2.3 Reading Comprehension
2.4 Some Tips

Part 3

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