In this section you are asked to assess the relationship
between a pair of words that is given to you (in capital letters) and
then to recognize a similar or parallel relationship in another pair included
as one of the five multiple-hoice answers given. Here is an example of
an analogy question:
Each question below consists of a related pair of words or phrases, followed by five pairs of words or phrases. Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.
ARTIST : PAINTING
(A) driver : car
(B) pedestrian : road
(C) composer : symphony
(D) surgeon : operation
(E) mailman : letter
The correct answer is (C). Just as an artist creates a painting a composer creates a symphony.
COMMON ANALOGY TYPES ARE
Definition - tailor : sew
Defining Characteristic - stable : horse
Class and Number - tragedy : drama , cow : mammal
Antonyms - bright : dull
Antonym Variation - Here the parts of speech are different.
For instance, disobedient : obedience
Synonyms - polite : courteous
Synonym Variation - frivolous : silliness
Degree of Intensity - sip : gulp
Part to Whole - toe : foot
Function - feet : walk
Manner - strut : walk
Articles made by a worker - Artist : painting
The worker and his tools - Artist : paintbrush
The worker and his task - teacher : teaches
The worker and the work place - teller : bank
The tool and the object - scissors : paper
The tool and the action - scissors : cut
Symbols - hawk : warlike
Actions and their Significance - smile : pleasure
Cause and effect - bacteria : infection
Sequence of Time and Space - beginning : end ; cellar : attic
Gender - duke : duchess
Age - calf : cow
Some Strategies for Use
Try and form a sentence expressing the relationship between the pair of head words. Then apply the same sentence to other pairs to see if it works. Look at our earlier example.
Make sure that the answer choice does not reverse the original relationship. For instance, if the head words are Artist : painting do not choose symphony : composer.
If you find that more than one choice fits the relationship in your sentence then choose the one that is more specific and narrow down the choices or reframe your sentence.
Look carefully at the parts of speech specially in the synonym and antonym variation questions.
Look for secondary meanings of words if the primary ones do not seem to fit. For instance, a spade is a garden tool as well as a suit of cards.
If you do not know the meaning of a word try and place it within a context, and then see what sense it makes.