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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-World History


India’s story was supposed to begin with the arrival of the Aryans. However the discovery of buried cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro, made historians aware of a very prosperous and advanced civilization belonging to the non-Aryan people in the Indus Valley.

The Aryans, arrived in India around 1500 BC, drove away the original inhabitants of the lands, the non-Aryans or Dasyus, and settled in the fertile land of the Sapt-Sindhu. The Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda and the Atharva Veda are the sources for the history of the Aryans. The Rig Vedic society had the family as its unit. The king or ’rajan’ was the protector of the people. He worked with the help of a council of ministers.


Society was divided into certain classes based on profession, namely Brahmans (Priests and teachers), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaisyas (trades) and Sudras (Menial workers). The Brahmanical religion required numerous ceremonies and sacrifices. The two religions, Jainism and Buddhism arose as a revolt against Brahmanism. The Mauryan Empire (324187 BC) came into power under Chandragupta, a great conqueror and administrator, who built the first great empire in India’s history.

Exhibit 1.4
The emblem on Ashoka’s pillar at Sarnath has been adopted as India’s national emblem

One of its rulers was Ashoka, who is regarded as one of the greatest kings in the world. He gave up conquest, at the height of his glory, and ruled according to the principles of ’Dharma’. H. G. Wells regards Ashoka as one of the greatest monarchs of history. The Gupta Age (320 526 AD) is called the Golden Age or the Augustan Age of ancient India. Its great emperors such as Chandra Gupta I, Samudra Gupta and Chandra Gupta II, brought great progress and prosperity to the country. The Vardhana Empire was established after the fall of the Guptas. One of its greatest kings was Harsha, a great warrior, an able administrator, and a patron of art and learning.

Click here to enlarge

Exhibit 1.5
Ruins of the ancient city of Harappa along with certain articles found there


Index

1.0 - Introduction
1.1 History: Meaning and Importance
1.2 Pre-historic Period
1.3 Early Civilizations
1.4 The Dark Age
1.5 The Medieval Period
1.6 Dates & Events
1.7 Points to Remember

Chapter 2





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