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  1. The Marathas and the Mughals in India
  2. During the 17th century Shivaji rose to power by establishing the Maratha ’Swarajya’ in the very heart of the Mughal Empire whose power he challenged. Shivaji’s foresight and vision as a great statesman in revealed by his formation of the Ashta Pradhan, the appointment of able men belonging to any community, the abolition of the Jagir system and the spirit of toleration and wholesome military reforms.

Exhibit 5.8
The famous Mughal dynasty: Babar, Humayun, Akbar and Aurangzeb

The invasion of the Mughals in India, is regarded as the beginning of modern times in India, as they gave new shape to the country. The Mughal Empire was established by Babar after the first Battle of Panipat in 1526. His son Humayun was overthrown by Sher Shah who organized the administration well. A new era in Indian history was started by Akbar the Great (1556-1605) who was not only the greatest Mughal ruler, but also one of the greatest kings in the world. However as Will Durant rightly comments, "The support of the people so wisely won by Akbar, had been forfeited by the cruelty of Jehangir, the wastefulness of Shah Jahan, the intolerance of Aurangzeb, and the weakness of his successors."


5.0 - Introduction
5.1 Growth and Features of the Revolution
5.2 The Rationalist Spirit and the Contribution of Voltaire
5.3 Application of the Critical Spirit
5.4 Age of Enlightened Despots
5.5 Dates & Events
5.6 Points to Remember

Chapter 6


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