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Algebra is the mathematical language that consists of seven basic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponents, roots and logarithms. Since Algebra is the arithmetic that uses letters, it can be defined as a universal arithmetic.

Algebra originated in Indian, Babylonian and Greek mathematics. The knowledge of Algebra later passed over from Arabian scholars to West European scholars. It was in Europe that it developed into its present form.

This discipline came to be termed ’Algebra’ in the earlier half of the eighth century. This term was derived from an ancient Algebra text named Al-jab ra’l muquabalah. Later on, European scholars such as Oresme (1223-1282), Chuquet (ca. 1500), Bombellie (1526 - 1573), Viete (1540 -1603), Descartes (1596 - 1650), Newton (1642 - 1727) and many others learnt the subject through this text. They made their respective contributions to this subject to bring it to us in its present form.


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1.1 Pre-requisties
1.2 Common Mathematical Symbols
1.3 Some Properties of Basic Mathematical Operations
1.4 Real Numbers

Chapter 2

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