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12.0 Introduction

Civil liberties may be described as the basic rights of men and women in a free society. They are positive, as for example freedom of speech, assembly, petition and press. They are protective since they limit the threatened aggressions of public agencies or private individuals. They are also protected by law and the courts. Civil liberties, in a comprehensive sense, may be regarded as the natural rights to which all men and women are entitled, according to public opinion. Legally, it is proper to consider civil liberties as personal and property rights that are guaranteed by constitutions and laws against violations by governments and individuals. Men in all ages have recognized certain civil liberties of the individual. Thus the Greeks felt that men could not be condemned without a trial. The Romans also had similar beliefs. The great documents of English liberty such as the Magna Carta (1215) the Petition of Rights (1628) and the Bill of Rights (1689), are part of the American political heritage which has a high respect for human freedom.

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12.0 Introduction
12.1 Perspective on Civil Liberties
12.2 The First Amendment:Freedom of Religion
12.3 The First Amendment:Freedom of Speech
12.4 The First Amendment:Freedom of Press
12.5 The Rights of Defendants
12.6 Implied Rights

Chapter 13

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