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The Act of 1964 made it illegal for any employer to discriminate in his employment practices against anyone because of race, religion or sex, or for labor unions to use these criteria in admitting members. Under this Act, all persons were entitled to equal services in places of public accommodation (including hotels, restaurants, theaters and sports arenas without racial discrimination. The Act of 1964 prohibited racial discrimination in any activity supported financially by the U.S. Each federal department and agency was authorized to formulate and administer rules (including the withdrawal of funds) designed to prevent racial discrimination.

The chief effect of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was to outlaw literacy tests as a qualification for voting. It also authorized direct action by federal executives to register voters and to see that these voters were allowed to cast their ballot and that their ballots were honestly counted.

The Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned discrimination in housing, on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin or sex.

13.4c Racial Violence

While African Americans persisted in their pursuit of equal rights, the highly volatile situation gave way to racial violence and disorder. 1965 was the year of the Watts riot in Los Angles and the Detroit riot in July 1967 was the worst race riot in American history, which led President Johnson to discuss the growing urban crisis, on a nationwide television broadcast. In order to establish a decent and orderly society in America, the President urged an attack on ignorance, discrimination, slums, poverty, disease and unemployment. A special advisory commission on Civil Disorders was appointed to contain such disasters in future. It made sweeping recommendations concerning employment, education, housing and the welfare system and called for "a commitment to national action on an unprecedented scale." However segregation of the races was approved of by Black Muslims who were ready to use violent methods, while the Black Panther party advocated "Black Power."


13.0 - Introduction
13.1 Slavery and Civil Rights
13.2 Segregation in the United States
13.3 Breaking down Segregation
13.4 The Civil Rights Movement
13.5 Civil Rights for Minorities and Women
13.6 Affirmative Action

Chapter 14

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