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4.3 The Organization of the Executive Branch

The executive branch of the government is itself the operating branch of the government as it does the actual work of regulating commerce, promoting the welfare of agriculture, waging war and so on. The work of the executive branch is not handled by the President alone. He has eleven departments and a large number of independent agencies to help him in the task of making executive decisions. This staff of the President is faithful to him and not to any governmental agency or the Congress.

It is interesting to note that the American Constitution gives virtually no idea about the actual organization of the executive branch. It only mentions "executive departments." The heads of theses departments are also the heads of an office or bureau in the Executive Office. They help the President to carry out his program effectively by maintaining good relations with the Congress, the press, the public, and other department and agency heads, including foreign governments and organizations. They are also known as cabinet secretaries and handle all kinds of administrative business like planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and reporting.

4.3a The Executive Office of the President

The Executive Office of the President gives over-all staff assistance to the President in determining and executing national policy. Through the White House Office, the National Security Council, the Council of Economic Advisors and the Office of Management and Budget, the Executive Office plays a leading role in matters determining foreign and domestic goals of the administration. It facilitates contact with the heads of federal departments and agencies, members of the Congress, the press and the public and also keeps the President up to date on important national and international matters, particularly those affecting national security and the economy. The Presidentís support personnel aid him by preparing speeches and addresses for different occasions, coordinating various activities and even looking after the White House, the grounds and the Presidentís health, comfort and safety.

The White House Office helps the President in his dealings with the Congress, heads of executive departments and agencies, the press and other media, as well as the general masses. It includes special assistants to the President on various matters such as national security, legislative programs and the arts; a press secretary; a special council; a legislative council; an adviser for national capital affairs; a physician to the President; three military aides; a personal secretary; several administrative assistants; and a number of other employees. The chief of staff occupies the most important position, since he has to see that the Presidentís legislative goals are fulfilled in coordination with the legislative program of the Congress.

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4.0 Introduction
4.1 The Powers of the President
4.2 The Functions of the President
4.3 The Organization of the Executive Branch
4.4 The Vice President and Presidential Succession

Chapter 5

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