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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-Biology


13.0 Introduction

The living world consists of millions of species of organisms. These present enormous diversity ranging from micro-organisms to the highest evolved plants and animals. The knowledge about all these organisms will be highly confusing, meaningless and useless if they are not properly identified and arranged systematically.

The systematic arrangement of properly identified and named organisms is called classification, systematics or taxonomy. (taxis = arrangement, nomos = order or law)

Thus, taxonomy is a branch of biology which deals with collection of organisms, their identification, nomenclature and systematic grouping or classification into various categories. This is done on the basis of similarities and differences of their morphological, anatomical, cytological, genetical, physiological, biochemical, developmental and other characteristics.

The similarities of characteristics between species or groups of species indicate their relationship. This is also gives us some idea about their phylogeny (i.e. their evolutionary history).

The classification of plants into various groups is called plant taxonomy or systematic botany. Similarly, classification of animals is called animal taxonomy or systematic zoology.

Table of Contents

13.0 - Introduction
13.1 Concepts of Species
13.2 Taxa and Categories
13.3 Systematic Hierarchies
13.4 Binomial Nomenclature
13.5 Principles of Classification

Chapter 14


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