4.4 The Balkan War
According to the conditions of the Berlin Treaty, different Christian races were forced to stay in different kingdoms. These races gradually thought of making their own federation, as they were greatly influenced by European ideologies. But their desire could not take the shape of reality.
The Bulgarian Issue (1885) arose as it had captured Rumolia which troubled Serbia immensely. It led to a war between Bulgaria and Serbia. As a result, the Balkan kingdoms were prevented from forming a federation of their own. Bulgaria had intentions of annexing Macedonia to her kingdom and establishing a democracy. Besides Bulgaria, Serbia and Grecia also wanted Macedonia included in their kingdom. There were regular fights among themselves. Due to this, the formation of a federation was effected. As Bulgaria opposed it, even the Greek Prime Minister did not succeed in his efforts of bringing these states closer to the formation of a federation.
However, when the birthday of the ruler of Montenegro was celebrated in 1910, the Ruler of Bulgaria, the Serbian and Greek Princes also actively participated in it. After a military pact made by Greece, Venezelos, the Greek Prime Minister, made a federation comprising Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria. Later, Montenegro joined it. Thus, the Balkan States formed the Federation.
4.4a The Main Issues leading to the Balkan Wars
As Turkey was weak, the Balkan Kingdoms (Bulgaria,
Greece, Serbia and Montenegro) decided to attack her, with the aim
of distributing its parts among themselves. They (Balkan Kingdoms)
had made a pact among themselves to distribute the spoils of Macedonia.
Accordingly, they waged a war against Turkey and defeated it. Serbia
and Montenegro captured Albania and reached Constantinople. The
unjust demands of the victors made Turkey wage another war with
the Balkans, but to no avail. She lost it again. She was now forced
to accept the terms of the victors. A Treaty was signed in London
(1913). According to this London Treaty, nearly all the territories
of Turkey were lost to the Balkans.
4.4b Balkan War of 1913
Now the Balkan Peninsula kingdoms fought among themselves on the question of the distribution of Macedonia. In this war, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Romania took up arms against Bulgaria. As it was difficult for Bulgaria to face the strong armies of these kingdoms, she made peace with them.
4.4c Effect of the Balkan Wars
Turkey suffered immense loss of men and territorial possessions as a result of these wars. Greece, Romania and Serbia acquired the territorial gains. Bulgaria was humiliated by its defeat in war.
Turkey helped Romania, Serbia and Greece against Bulgaria. It also enhanced the hostilities between the two, but the Treaty of Constantinople made peace between them.
The Peninsula of Balkan is said to be the Volcano of Europe. As far as Europe was concerned, it remained constantly endangered by the conflicts of these kingdoms. The interests of the European rulers clashed with one another for the Balkan Peninsula. The Great War of 1914 was fought as a direct result of the Balkan wars.