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11. First, you should reread Chapters 22 and 23 to review Machiavelli's description of the wise and competent adviser. Discuss the ways in which advisers reflect favorably or unfavorably upon their ruler. What is the difference between an adviser and a flatterer? You can use Machiavelli's own example of Emperor Maximilian I as a prince who surrounded himself with weak advisers. Can you think of someone in more recent times who fits Machiavelli's ideal of an able adviser to a ruler or head of state? Explain.
12. Begin your essay with a brief summary of the types of military power described by Machiavelli in Chapters 12, 13, and 14. List the general characteristics associated with mercenary, auxiliary, and mixed or national troops. Then analyze the steps a prince should take to win the support of a loyal military force. You can reinforce your discussion by mentioning some of the historical examples Machiavelli uses to express his views of powerful military leadership, including Cesare Borgia, Alexander the Great, and Hannibal.
13. You can begin by pointing out the reasons that Machiavelli appears to fear the influence of both the nobles and the people. Discuss his reservations concerning the threats posed to the prince who must rely on support from the nobles. What are his views about the threats posed by the people? Point out specific examples where princes have lost their kingdoms in trying to cater to the wishes of the nobles. Mention specific examples where princes have lost their kingdoms at the expense of the people. Using Chapter 9 as a reference point, discuss the likely result of a prince's efforts to win support from both the nobles and the people.