PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-Biology|
Vitamins are the complex organic compounds essential
for complete, normal and healthy growth. Absence of any vitamin from the
body results in specific deficiency diseases. Vitamins are naturally synthesized
by most green plants. All phototrophic micro-organisms produce vitamins
either as primary metabolic products or as fermentation products.
Animals and human beings do not produce all vitamins in their bodies and
must obtain them from food.
Vitamin B-12 - (Cyanocobalamine) : It is a compound
containing cobalt. In nature, micro-organisms like Propionibacterium,
Pseudomonas denitrificans, Streptomyces olivaceous,
etc. synthesize vitamin B-12 from the medium containing
cobalt-rich substrate (e.g. corn sugar, cane molasses, starch, etc.) Some
of the micro-organisms present in the digestive system also produce vitamin
B-12 in the natural process. Cyano-cobalamin is the most essential vitamin
for human growth. Meat and fish are the main sources of vitamin B-12.
Vitamin B-2 - (Riboflavin) : Cereals, green vegetables,
brewer’s yeast, etc. are the most common sources of vitamin B-2. Riboflavin
is essential for growth and reproduction in animals. The natural biological
synthesis of riboflavin occurs during fermentation by the fungus Ashbya
gossypii and by another micro-organism, Eremothecium ashbyii.
In the biotechnological process for the commercial production
of Cyano-cobalamin (vitamin B-12), genetically improved and highly efficient
strains of Propionibacterium or Pseudomonase denitrificans
are used. The common substrate used in the process is corn steep
and glucose plus cobalt (5 ppm)
As a result of the biotechnological application, now the improved
strain of P. denitrificans can produce 50,000 times
more vitamin B-12 than its original strain. This is one of the most
outstanding examples of the application of biotechnology.
Table of Contents
10.0 - Introduction
10.2 Manufacture of Alcohol