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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-Biology

16.2 Organs of digestion and physiology of digestion

In higher organisms the organs of digestion include the alimentary canal and digestive glands. The alimentary canal serves as a passage for food while the digestive glands secrete the enzymes which help in the process of digestion. As the complex food passes through the alimentary canal the following things occur:

(i) Carbohydrates are broken down and converted into glucose.

(ii) Proteins are converted into amino acids, and

(iii) Fats are converted into fatty acids and glycerol.

Human Digestive System

The human digestive system consists of the two parts :

(1) Alimentary canal and (2) Associated glands.

(1) Alimentary canal

It is a muscular and glandular tube in which food is passed forward by peristalsis. It is a sort of fuel refinery. Food provides crude fuel to this refinery while the glands supply fluids and enzymes to break down the fuel. The system often works steadily and automatically, except sometimes under protest, in the form of constipation, diarrhea, ulcers etc.

  1. Mouth and mouth cavity : The mouth is the anterior opening guarded by a pair of fleshy lips, leading into mouth cavity bounded by the upper and lower jaws bearing 32 teeth in an average adult. It is bound by cheeks on two sides, the hard and soft palate as the roof and tongue on the floor. The teeth are of four types, (i) incisors or cutting teeth, (ii) canines which are the tearing teeth and (iii) premolars and (iv) molars that are the grinding teeth.

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Table of Contents

16.0 - Introduction
16.1 - Nutritional Requirements, Imbalances and Deficiency Diseases
16.2 - Organs of Digestion and Physiology of Digestion

Chapter 17


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