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1.0 Introduction

This chapter deals with the Renaissance and Reformation in Europe. Geographical discoveries and explorations are also discussed. Besides this, the establishment of the Tudors to the English throne, their home and foreign policies are mentioned.

The name ‘Renaissance’ is given to the revival of learning. It began in Italy and slowly spread throughout Europe effecting England in the 15th and 16th centuries. Knowledge spread with the invention of the Printing Press. When the Turks captured Constantinople, scholars in that city fled from the wrath of the Turks to Italy with their precious books. They established their own schools for Greek language and learning. The Press helped to multiply the existing books. Also a spirit of inquiry and experiment developed.

The Greeks had done ample research in the fields of Geography and Astronomy. One book ‘The New Testament’ written in Greek was of great help to the religious reformers.

The Geographical Discoveries had far-reaching effects on the minds and hearts of the people. The impact of Geographical discoveries were felt by many people. With the rise of the Tudors in England and the advent of the Renaissance there, a new era began in the History of England.

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1.0 Introduction
1.1 The Modern Age in the History of Europe
1.2 Renaissance in Italy 1.3 The Geographical Explorations of the 15th and the 16th centuries
1.4 The Tudor Dynasty
1.5 Henry VII - the Founder of the Tudor Dynasty
1.6 Henry VIII (1509-1547)
1.7 The Reign of Edward VI (1547-1553)
1.8 Mary Tudor (1553-1558)
1.9 Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
1.10 Reformation in Europe
1.11 Reformation in Germany : Efforts of Martin Luther

1.12 The Official Instatement of Protestantism
1.13 Calvinism
1.14 Reformation in England
1.15 Counter Reformation
1.16 Legacy of the Reformation

1.17 Points to Remember

Chapter 2

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