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1.2 Renaissance in Italy

Renaissance has been defined as the "discovery of world and of man." The Greek scholars provided a strong impetus to the interest in the Greco-Roman culture. The study made by these scholars of the Greek language and ancient literature a new culture and modern mode of thought and life. It refuted the very idea of blind obedience that carried on in medieval age. These scholars who took refuge in Italy were greatly impressed by their classical treasure of literature. As far as the power of the Church was concerned, the strength of the Church remained intact. The Renaissance was not at all hostile to the Church, though it weakened the hold that it previously held on the hearts and minds of men.

The Greek language was accorded great respect at that time. It was taught in the universities of Italy.

Literature flourished in almost every part of Europe. But it began in Italy due to these scholars who began the revival from Italy. The writings of poets of Italy acquired great importance in the world. The Italian names cannot be forgotten in the areas of history, poetry and art. The names of Ariosto and Tasso shone in the field of poetry and Machiavelli is a historian who also wrote treatises on politics.

The era of the Renaissance is well associated with the achievements in the field of art, literature, music, architecture and painting. At the beginning of the movement it was Giotto and it reached its peak with Michaelangelo and Raphael. In every sphere of development the ancient revival took place with a special influence of Roman culture. However, Italian art was most revolutionary and original. For about more than two and half centuries many artists developed their knowledge in the art of painting and presented a new and modern sense to the Europe. This expression later on spread all over the world.

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1.0 Introduction
1.1 The Modern Age in the History of Europe
1.2 Renaissance in Italy
1.3 The Geographical Explorations of the 15th and the 16th centuries

1.4 The Tudor Dynasty
1.5 Henry VII - the Founder of the Tudor Dynasty
1.6 Henry VIII (1509-1547)
1.7 The Reign of Edward VI (1547-1553)
1.8 Mary Tudor (1553-1558)
1.9 Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
1.10 Reformation in Europe
1.11 Reformation in Germany : Efforts of Martin Luther

1.12 The Official Instatement of Protestantism
1.13 Calvinism
1.14 Reformation in England
1.15 Counter Reformation
1.16 Legacy of the Reformation

1.17 Points to Remember

Chapter 2

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