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Michaelangelo’s famous representation
of the Creation of Man

Leonardo da Vinci

Mona Lisa
Exhibit 1.3
The works of Michaelangelo and Vinci and a painting of Leonardo da Vinci

iv. Popularity of Vernacular Literature

Latin was the language of scholars in the 'Middle Ages.' It was not easily intelligible to the masses. The common people required a simple medium for understanding higher knowledge. This resulted in the growth of a national vernacular literature all over Europe. A big boost was thus given to the popularization of vernacular literature. The modern theology of scholars was now made available to the common masses.

Dante                   Machiavelli

Exhibit 1.4
Renowned Italians of the Renaissance times

The Italians, Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio etc. were the great poets and writers of this age. They produced immortal works that continue to influence writers today. Italy was the first nation to produce great men of letters. In England it was Chaucer who worked hard to make 'standard English.' Martin Luther, in Germany, translated the Bible into German and drafted his own views in the German language. In France, Rabelais enriched the vernacular literature.

v. Scientific Growth and Development

Science took long strides in the new age, as people now accepted as true only that which seemed was logical. As they came in contact with Arabs, they learnt modern mathematics and chemistry. Newton formulated his theory of Gravitation. Scientists and the intelligentsia laid the foundation of natural and experimental science. Besides, traditional beliefs upheld by the Church about various natural phenomena were also shattered. The belief that the Earth is the Center of the Solar System was demolished. Copernicus scientifically proved that the Earth, instead of being the center, is a planet revolving round the Sun. Galileo popularized this theory of Kepler.

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1.0 Introduction
1.1 The Modern Age in the History of Europe
1.2 Renaissance in Italy 1.3 The Geographical Explorations of the 15th and the 16th centuries
1.4 The Tudor Dynasty
1.5 Henry VII - the Founder of the Tudor Dynasty
1.6 Henry VIII (1509-1547)
1.7 The Reign of Edward VI (1547-1553)
1.8 Mary Tudor (1553-1558)
1.9 Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
1.10 Reformation in Europe
1.11 Reformation in Germany : Efforts of Martin Luther
1.12 The Official Instatement of Protestantism
1.13 Calvinism
1.14 Reformation in England
1.15 Counter Reformation
1.16 Legacy of the Reformation
1.17 Points to Remember

Chapter 2

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