5.1a Outbreak of the Revolution (March 1917)
In March 1917 the people converged in a march on the
streets of Petrograd even though the government had ordered the army to
open fire on them. The soldiers did not carry out the government orders,
as they were also influenced by the ideas of revolution. Strikes were
staged everywhere in the country. Seeing this, the Czar dissolved the
Parliament. Firing took place at some places. A resolution was passed
on 14th March for establishing the collective government. Following this
Nicholas II had to leave his throne. A revolutionary government was set
up. With this the reign of the Czar came to an end. The government of
revolutionaries lasted only till November 1917. After that power was captured
by the Bolsheviks and Lenin assumed the leadership of the Revolution.
V.I. Ulyanov Lenin
5.1b Bolshevik Government
The Bolshevik Revolution was a Revolution of poor farmers
and laborers. Its purpose was to end the autocracy of the rulers. It desired
to form a government of laborers. The All Russian Soviet Congress
was established with similar intentions. Also a central executive committee
was established which had 200 members. The Bolsheviks opposed the continuance
of war, and made a demand for the rights of the people. Many started joining
the Bolsheviks and their numbers swelled. They ultimately succeeded as
they acted according to the desire and requirements of the masses.
Stalin became the leader of Russia. In 1923, the USSR
was established and Stalin was given sweeping powers. Stalin also introduced
a new economic policy, organized industries and established syndicates.
During the implementation of the five-year plans, Stalin generated vast
power and arranged for rapid means of transport in Russia. Factories of
coal and iron were established and new roads and railways were constructed
in Russia. The prestige of Russia rose in the international arena.