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IMPORTANT DATES IN EUROPEAN HISTORY

1338

-

The Hundred Years’ War breaks out. It lasts tills 1453.

1443

-

The Black Death; plague breaks out in England.

1453

-

The capture of Constantinople (the home of classical learning) by the Turks. They compel the Greek scholars to flee to Italy and other West European countries where they spread the knowledge of Greek philosophy and literature. This is the beginning of the Renaissance in Europe.

1486

-

Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope.

1492

-

Columbus sails on his first expedition to the West Indies which later leads to the discovery of America.

1498

-

Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese, discovers the sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope.

1517

-

The Beginning of the Reformation.

1529 - 36

-

The Reformation in England under Henry VIII.

1564

-

The Birth of Shakespeare.

1577

-

Drake, the famous English Admiral, starts his voyage round the world for the first time and plunders Spanish ships and ports in South America.

1588

-

Admiral Drake defeats the Spanish Armada. England becomes the 'Mistress of the Seas.'

1605

-

The Gunpowder Plot in England to blow up the English Parliament.

1649

-

The Trial and execution of Charles I.

1649-60

-

The Commonwealth and the Protectorate in England.

1660

-

The Restoration of Monarchy in England.

1665

-

The Great Plague of London.

1688

-

The Bloodless or Glorious Revolution in England. The despotic rule of the Stuarts ends, and the Parliamentary rule begins.

-

Establishment of parliamentary supremacy and abolition of the "Divine Rights of Kings."

1704

-

The Battle of Blenheim. Marlborough and Eugene inflict a crushing defeat on the French army.

1707

-

Union of England and Scotland

1763

-

Treaty of Paris. It ends the Seven Years’ War (1756 - 63), weakens France, and makes England a great colonial power.

1783

-

The Treaty of Versailles. England recognizes the independence of the United States of America.

1789

-

The French Revolution

1805

-

The Battle of Austerlitz: Napoleon routs a combined army of Russia and Austria.

1815

-

The Battle of Waterloo: Napoleon is defeated and exiled to St. Helena.

-

Congress of Vienna that aimed at rearranging the map of Europe.

1821

-

Death of Napoleon at St. Helena.

1914

-

Outbreak of World War I.

1916

-

The British Grand Fleet under Admiral Jellico defeats the German Fleet under Admiral Scheer. under Admiral Scheer.

1917

-

The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Russia becomes a Republic. The Czar abdicates and is later assassinated. Lenin comes to power.

1918

-

End of World War I (11th November).

1919

-

The Paris Conference and the Treaty of Versailles.

1920

-

The League of Nations founded.

1924

-

Lenin dies, and power passes into the hands of Stalin in Russia.

1933

-

Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany.

1935

-

War between Italy and Ethiopia; Italy annexes Ethiopia.

1939 - 45

-

World War II

1945

-

Conferences are held at San Francisco

-

U.N.O. is established.

-

End of World War II.

1947

-

"Marshal Plan" for Europe.

-

Agreement at the Hague establishes a custom union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

-

A military alliance treaty called the Treaty of Dunkirk is signed.

1948

-

A treaty is concluded between the Benelux countries i.e. Britain, France, etc. according to which the promotion of collective defense and co-operation concerning economic, social and cultural matters is agreed upon.

1949

-

The North Atlantic Treaty is signed in Washington. The Council of European States is signed in Strasbourg.

This provides political and cultural co-operation and the creation of the consultative parliamentary assembly to discuss European issues.

1950

-

Negotiations open in Paris among France, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Luxembourg (after the Second World War).

1952

-

The European Defense Community Treaty is signed in Paris.

1953

-

The European Common Market is established. It trades in coal, iron ore and scrap.

1954

-

Nine-Power conference in London on the re-armament.

-

Britain signs an association Treaty with the European Coal and Steel Community.

1955

-

West Germany joins N.A.T.O.

1957

-

Japan is admitted to U.N.O.

-

The Treaty of Rome is signed by the six in settling up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Eurotom) [Belgium, France, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Luxembourg.]

1959

-

Nikita Khrushchev visits U.S.A.

1960

-

The Cold War intensifies.

-

European Free Trade Association (EFTA) convention meets in Stockholm.

1947

-

"Marshal Plan" for Europe.

-

Agreement at the Hague establishes a custom union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

-

A military alliance treaty called the Treaty of Dunkirk is signed.

1948

-

A treaty is concluded between the Benelux countries i.e. Britain, France, etc. according to which the promotion of collective defense and co-operation concerning economic, social and cultural matters is agreed upon.

1949

-

The North Atlantic Treaty is signed in Washington. The Council of European States is signed in Strasbourg.

This provides political and cultural co-operation and the creation of the consultative parliamentary assembly to discuss European issues.

1950

-

Negotiations open in Paris among France, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Luxembourg (after the Second World War).

1952

-

The European Defense Community Treaty is signed in Paris.

1953

-

The European Common Market is established. It trades in coal, iron ore and scrap.

1954

-

Nine-Power conference in London on the re-armament.

-

Britain signs an association Treaty with the European Coal and Steel Community.

1955

-

West Germany joins N.A.T.O.

1957

-

Japan is admitted to U.N.O.

-

The Treaty of Rome is signed by the six in settling up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Eurotom) [Belgium, France, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Luxembourg.]

1959

-

Nikita Khrushchev visits U.S.A.

1960

-

The Cold War intensifies.

-

European Free Trade Association (EFTA) convention meets in Stockholm.

 

**********

Index

General Conclusion
Questions
Important Dates in European History
A Glossary of Historical Terms
Bibliography

Chapter 1





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