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12.5 Points To Remember

Causes of the Russian Revolution

  • There was widespread discontent among the peasants who had to make do with unsophisticated agricultural machinery and had to pay huge rents to the landlords. Hence they resented the Czarist regime.

  • In the absence of trade unions, the administration did not bother to improve the working conditions of the industrial worker, which were becoming increasingly intolerable.

  • Social conditions had become unbearable with widespread illiteracy and the absence of medical facilities for the masses.

  • The people were not empowered to improve their lot in any legal way, no press to ventilate their grievances and even the parliament had limited powers.

  • Marxist ideas were influencing the masses in an important way; Russia saw the establishment of two parties": the Bolsheviks (Lenin) and the Mensheviks (Martov).

  • The defeat that Russia faced at the hands of Japan made it consider its military strength and brought the Russian regime under question.

  • The Revolution of 1905 served as dress rehearsal for the main one in 1917.

  • Czarina Alexandra’s interference in political affairs incensed the people.

  • A poor performance of Russia in the World War created chaos in the country. The demoralized soldiers joined the peasants in the revolt against the regime.

The Course of the Russian Revolution

  • Two revolutions occurred in 1917; the February Revolution overthrow the Czarist regime and established a Republic while the October Revolution overthrew the Republic and established a dictatorship of the laboring class.

  • The February revolution had begun with riots and strikes and gradually Petrograd was taken over by the Revolutionaries.

  • The Czarist ministers were expelled and Commissars were commissioned in their place.

  • With the end of the Czarist regime, a Provisional Government and the government of the Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies was soon established, the latter of which was gained prominence in all cities, towns and districts.

  • Lenin led an agitation (in October) against the Provisional government so that the Prime minister had to resign.

  • The Bolsheviks became a major party in Russia.

  • A constitution was established which declared Russia a Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic.

  • In 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic was instituted by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets.

  • Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy that was a mixture of state socialism and state capitalism.

  • Stalin introduced the Five-Year plans that greatly improved the economic conditions of the country.

  • The country became the second most highly industrialized country after the U.S.A.


Consequences and Significance of the Russian Revolution
  • A republic was instituted in place of the Czarist Regime.

  • The world was forced to reconsider the undue emphasis given to democracy as a form of government.

  • The revolution inspired the labor classes of the world to unite against the capitalist class.

  • The concept of economic planning was an important offshoot.

  • It unleashed a cold war between states upholding communist doctrines and those maintaining anti communist ideology; the world was divided into two.

  • The Revolution turned Russia into a super power under influential rulers like Lenin and Stalin.

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[next chapter]

Index

12.0 - Introduction
12.1 Causes of theRussian Revolution
12.2 The Course of the Russian Revolution
12.3 Consequences and Significance of the Russian Revolution
12.4 Dates & Events
12.5 Points to Remember

Chapter 13





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