13.8 Points To Remember

Causes of the Growth of Dictatorships in Europe

  • Germany emerged wounded from the world war. The Treaty of Versailles proved a further insult to her sense of national dignity. Hence it looked forward to strong leaders.

  • The Treaty of Versailles could not be enforced effectively.

  • The League of Nations failed to achieve its objective of maintaining world peace. Hence dictatorships cropped up unchecked.
  • The world depression in 1939 threw the world into a state of despair.

  • Japan’s invasion of Manchuria was enough to prove to the world that dictatorship is a worthwhile form of government.

The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Italy

  • Various post war effects: bankruptcy, starvation, inflation and unemployment led to widespread discontentment in the country. Italy was not a contented victor of the war.

  • In 1919, Benito Mussolini established the Fascisti party which comprised of ex-soldiers, industrialists, professionals, middle class people and the intelligentsia.

  • The Fascists were against Liberalism, Communism and Democracy. They ensured a number of benefits and that appealed to the people.

  • The Fascists were able to defeat the radicals in the civil war that occurred in 1920- 22. By 1923 he from Prime Minister he became a dictator.

  • Mussolini crushed all forms of opposition.

  • He introduced the highly commendable a ’Charter of Labor’ that ensured certain basic rights to laborers.

  • He developed the concept of the ’Corporate State’.

  • He signed the Lateran Treatise with the Pope, which announced the formation of a new state Vatican, with the Pope as its sovereign.

  • Mussolini strengthened the Italian army, navy and air force in a bid to accomplish national glory abroad.

  • Italy was joined with Germany in the Berlin-Rome Axis formed in 1936.

  • Mussolini entered the World War II in 1940.
  • After Italy surrendered in 1943, Mussolini was gunned down by anti fascist Italians.

The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Germany

  • The Treaty of Versailles resulted in widespread discontentment and hatred toward the Allies. The Italians were looking for an opportunity to revenge their insult.

  • The post war effects were disastrous; Italy witnessed a terrible inflation that left the entire economy virtually paralyzed.

  • The Depression of 1929- 30 added to the misery.

  • The labor class was greatly influenced by Communistic ideas hence the middle class looked forward to the Nazis to save the country from the Invasion of Communism.

  • Adolf Hitler did a great deal to revive he Nazi party.

  • Hitler began to massacre the Jews and the Communists; a ’Bloody Saturday’ witnessed large scale slaughter of the Jews of the country.

  • Adolf Hitler became the President and gained control of all the national aspects of the country.

  • An important aspect of his foreign policy was to renounce the Treaty of Versailles and acquiring of new lands.

  • After Hitler launched an armed attack on Poland in 1939. This heralded the next great war: World War II.

  • After Germany was defeated in 1945, Hitler committed suicide and Nazi dictatorship came to an end.

The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Spain

  • The inefficiency of King Alphonso and the government led to the breakdown of the functioning of the government.

  • This was followed by the military dictatorship of General Primo De Rivera and declared a state of war.

  • After restoring political order, he launched ambitious plans for development of the country.

  • The World Depression paralyzed the economy of Spain and General Primo resigned in 1943.

  • The Republicans, the Moderates and the Popular Front rose to power but for short periods.

  • General Franco was successful in overthrowing the Popular Front government. He had the support of the clergymen, royalists, rightists, landlord and conservative republicans.

  • A civil war followed and Franco emerged victorious; he enjoyed the backing of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.

  • He formed a government in 1936 and ruled as a dictator for four decades.

The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Portugal

  • Portugal was declared a Republic following the October Revolution of 1910.

  • In 1926 the army overthrew the inefficient government and established a military dictatorship in its place.

  • General Antonio Oscar Carmona became the President of the new Republic in 1928.

  • He was re-elected President three times over and assumed the post until his death in 1951.

  • The new finance minister Dr. Salajar introduced a number of economic reforms which highly improved the debt situation of the country.

Significance and Impact of Dictatorships in Europe

  • The dictatorships especially the Fascist and the Nazi ones were anti humanist and anti international.

  • They not only glorified war but were also against any attempts of maintaining international peace.

**********

Index

13.0 - Introduction
13.1 Causes of the Growth of Dictatorships in Europe
13.2 The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Italy
13.3 The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Germany
13.4 The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Spain
13.5 The Rise and Fall of Dictatorship in Portugal
13.6 Significance and Impact of Dictatorships in Europe
13.7 Dates & Events
13.8 Points to Remember

Chapter 14

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