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(vi) Major Agencies of the U.N.O.

The effects of the World War II saw not only the need for an organization to establish permanent world peace but also the formation of certain agencies that would help in the rebuilding of the damaged social and economic structure of nations the world over. The Special Agencies of the U.N.O work together in economic, social, cultural, scientific spheres to ensure substantial development in developed and especially developing countries.

  1. United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
  2. Most of the work of the United Nations, in terms of finance and personnel, is devoted to programs aimed at achieving economic and social development in the developing countries. The U.N.O. extends aid for national development plans in an attempt to ensure balanced economic and social growth of the world economy. It aims at making the best use of available financial, physical and human resources.

    Its programs are related to various development activities in almost every economic and social sector, including farming, fishing, forestry, mining, manufacturing, health and environmental sanitation. It carries out surveys to economic worth of a nationís natural resources, improving eduation systems and upgrading the economic and social structure in order to accommodate sophisticated technology. It is funded by the governments of the member nations.

  3. United Nations International Childrenís Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
  4. This was established in 1946. Its headquarters are at New York. It attempts to arrest the spread of diseases among children. It organizes nutritious food for the benefit of undernourished children in the poor countries. It takes steps to spread information of how to prevent serious diseases. This agency is again financed by the governments of the member nations as well as certain private agencies.

    Exhibit 18.6
    The UNICEF logo

  5. World Health Organization (WHO)
  6. It was founded in April 1948 with its headquarters at Geneva. There is an Executive Board that implements its programs. Its primary concern is to improve the health of all the peoples of the world. "Health for all by the 2000" is the main aim of this agency. The WHO provides medical aid. It arranges for medicines to prevent various diseases. It takes measures to check the spread of infectious diseases. This agency also sends specialists to various nations to provide advice for the promotion of human health. It encourages research related to all aspects of health including nutrition, maternity and child care, environmental safety, mental health, control of specific diseases, etc.

  7. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
  8. This agency was founded in 1946 with its headquarters at Paris. Its main purpose is to promote peace and security through education, science and culture and communication. Its helps in the spread of knowledge, culture, and international understanding among the member nations. It makes arrangements to expand and direct education in different countries to eliminate illiteracy. It starts schools and trains teachers, planners and administrators. It fosters social sciences as instruments for the realization of human rights, justice and peace. It promotes national and cultural values and encourages the study and development of cultures.

  9. International Labor Organization(ILO)
  10. It was founded in 1919 and was also an organ of the League of Nations. It began operating as a special agency of the U.N.O in 1945 and its headquarters at Geneva. This agency aims at improving the working conditions of the laborers all over the world, for the purpose of raising their standard of living, improving their economic and social condition and providing a more just environment for working people. It checks unemployment among the labor, determines their wage hours and conditions of work and organizes social insurance, paid vacations, industrial safety, education of their children and labor inspection.

    It will be observed that U.N.O.ís role towards maintaining world peace in order to make human life safe and worthwhile can never be overemphasized.

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18.0 Introduction
18.1 Regional Organizations
   a. E.E.C
   b. O.P.E.C
   c. S.W.A.P.O
   d. S.A.A.R.C
   e. A.S.E.A.N,
   f. G.A.T.T.
   g. N.A.F.T.A
18.2 International Organizations
   a. N.A.M
   b. The Commonwealth
   c. U.N.O.
18.3 Dates & Events

Chapter 19


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