18.2a Non-Aligned Movement(NAM)
Two important effects of World War II were the rise of independent nation states and the Cold War between the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. Not only did these new states of Asia and Africa want to avoid the membership of any of the two power blocs (i.e. the Communist and the Capitalist); they also wanted an independent foreign policy that would not be dictated by these superior powers. This new foreign policy took the form of NAM. This movement maintains that any nation has the right to freedom and choice of action in the international field.
Most of the nations that had got newly independent experienced similar economic and political problems. Therefore they shared a common view on international matters. A total of thirty Asian and African nations came together at a conference held at Bandung in Indonesia in 1955. The premiers of India, China and Indonesia played a leading role at this meet. It was at this conference that these nations expressed their wish to remain neutral.
Although the participating African and Asian countries shared a colonial past,
their forms of government were not the same. Therefore the leaders
of these countries decided to come together for the common purpose
of maintaining peace and mutual cooperation.
Five principles (called the Panch Sheel) were
adopted to this effect:
Mutual respect for each otherís territorial integrity.
Non-interference in each otherís affairs
Equality and mutual benefit
These principles were announced in 1954 by India and China in their agreement over Tibet. The association of Non-Aligned (instead of íneutralistí was first proclaimed at a conference held in Belgrade in 1961. The idea was expanded upon by Indian Prime Minister - Nehru when he stated that the Non-Aligned countries wish to avoid power blocs or groups aligned against each other. Though the movement started off with only 25 countries, its present membership has increased to over a hundred countries.
The objectives of the Non Aligned Movement are:
Granting freedom to people under colonial and alien domination.
Establishment of a just international economic order.
Elimination of the causes and horrors of war and, especially
elimination of nuclear weapons.
Promotion of human rights.
Condemnation of all forms of racial discrimination.
Protection of the environment.
Abolition of imperialism, colonialism and neo-colonialism.
Peaceful co-existence and amiable settlement of international
Strengthening the role and effectiveness of the United Nations.