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Exhibit 4.1
The Presidentís Seal

4.2d Chief Executive

The President makes use of the vast mechanism of the executive branch, in accordance with the constitutional direction that he "take care that the laws be faithfully executed." Being responsible for all the programs in the executive branch, the President lays out the broad policy for the executive departments and agencies. As chief executive, the President can also issue orders to his department heads and subordinates on matters like civil service regulations and budgetary instruction.

4.2e The President as Legislator

Article II, Section 3 of the Constitution links the President to the Congress for the planning of legislation. A powerful and persuasive President can coerce enactment of additional legislation by maintaining close contacts with the Congress through his White House staff and by personal meetings with Congressional leaders. The President is empowered to appeal directly to the people for support in case of a divided government (with the White House and Congress being under the control of different political parties). The interests and policies of the President set the tone of legislation for any given issue.

4.2f Moral leadership

The President commands attention since he exercises power that can mold the conditions of the lives of American citizens. Many people such as American Indians referred to the President as "the great white Father." Thus he is expected to set moral standards for the nation by propagating the values of honesty, integrity and religious faith. The media and public in present times have begun to focus on the private lives of public officials, making the Presidentís role as a moral leader even more significant.

4.2g The President as Party Leader

The President not only discharges his governmental responsibilities, he is also considered to be the leader of his political party. The party expects the President to support the partyís policies, raise funds for the party and help in campaigning for its candidates. In his turn, the President expects the party members to support him in the Congress on key votes. Discord is bound to arise between the Presidentís role as a national leader and a party leader.

In general, the Presidentís effectiveness depends on his popularity with the people, with the top politicians of his party and with members of the Congress. He integrates his powers as national leader, party leader as well as administrative leader, so as to keep legislators and politicians subject to his will.

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4.0 Introduction
4.1 The Powers of the President
4.2 The Functions of the President
4.3 The Organization of the Executive Branch
4.4 The Vice President and Presidential Succession

Chapter 5

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