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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-Biology

  1. Fermentation : Fermentation by the yeast process starts and soon becomes vigorous. A large quantity of carbon dioxide is evolved during the process. The gas (by-product of the alcohol industry) is collected, purified and used in various other industries.

  2. Separation of ethyl alcohol : Alcoholic fermentation is completed in about 48 hours. The fermented medium contains alcohol as well as other volatile constituents and unused constituents of the molasses. Therefore, separation of ethyl alcohol from other impurities is necessary. This is done by distillation.

  3. Purification : Finally, alcohol is purified with the help of rectifying columns and stored in bonded warehouses.

Ethyl alcohol is also formed as one of the products of fermentation during the manufacture of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, whisky, rum and gin.


Different types of alcoholic beverages are obtained by making use of the fermentation activity of different strains of yeast Saccharomyces as shown in the following table.

Various products of alcoholic fermentation

Beverage

Substrate

Micro-organism

(Saccharomyces) Species/Strains

Alcohol %

1. Wine

Grape juice

S. ellipsoideus

10-12%

2. Beer

Cereals

S. cerevisae

4-8%

3. Rum

Black strap

molasses

___________

 

4. Whiskey

Cereals

 

51-59%

5. Sake

Starch (rice)

Aspergillus oryzae, Lactobacillus and S. cerevisae

16%

6. Champagne

Grape juice

___________

12-13%

7. Brandy

Wine

___________

43-57%



Table of Contents

10.0 - Introduction
10.1 Fermentation
10.2 Manufacture of Alcohol
10.3 Antibiotics
10.4 Vitamins

Chapter 11





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