(g) Roughage : This is coarse indigestible
food matter that is consumed as part of regular food. It consists
mainly of cellulose fibers of leafy vegetables. It stimulates
the intestine, induces peristalsis and maintains proper bowel movement.
A sufficient amount of roughage in the diet prevents constipation
and other complications arising from it. Leafy vegetables and fruits
like tomato, guava, oranges, etc. provide roughage.
A balanced diet is one which provides all
the essential nutrients in adequate quantities and proper proportion
to maintain good health and physical efficiency. It must satisfy
the following requirements :
(1) Sufficient number of calories.
(2) Principle constituents of food for humans
are roughly 60% carbohydrates, 20% proteins and 20%
(3) Some fresh fruit, milk, butter and green
leafy vegetables provide vitamins and
roughage (in the form of fibrous plant material)
to stimulate bowel movement.
(4) A range of mineral elements especially
calcium, potassium, sodium, iron, etc.
(5) Adequate quantity of water.
The daily requirement of an average human is 3000
to 3500 calories. This requirement may vary depending mainly upon
the age, sex and the amount of physical work that a person may do.
An imbalanced diet is one which does not
have all essential requirements in the proper proportion but shows
a deficiency or increase in any one or more food constituents mentioned
Malnutrition is a condition in which a
person suffers a lack or deficiency of one or more essential elements
of food in the diet. It causes various deficiency diseases such
as kwashiorkor (protein deficiency) goiter, (iodine
deficiency) anemia (iron deficiency), muscle cramps, beriberi,
and night blindness, depending upon the type of elements deficient