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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-Biology

(f) Water : forms about 60 to 80% of the body weight. It is essential for most of the biochemical process in cells. It is also a good solvent for a number of organic and inorganic substances. It is an essential component of blood. It also helps in the transportation of useful materials, removal of wastes and regulation of body temperature. It helps in enzymatic reactions. In fact all metabolic activities come to a stop for want of water.

(g) Roughage : This is coarse indigestible food matter that is consumed as part of regular food. It consists mainly of cellulose fibers of leafy vegetables. It stimulates the intestine, induces peristalsis and maintains proper bowel movement. A sufficient amount of roughage in the diet prevents constipation and other complications arising from it. Leafy vegetables and fruits like tomato, guava, oranges, etc. provide roughage.

Balanced diet

A balanced diet is one which provides all the essential nutrients in adequate quantities and proper proportion to maintain good health and physical efficiency. It must satisfy the following requirements :

(1) Sufficient number of calories.

(2) Principle constituents of food for humans are roughly 60% carbohydrates, 20% proteins and 20% fat.

(3) Some fresh fruit, milk, butter and green leafy vegetables provide vitamins and

roughage (in the form of fibrous plant material) to stimulate bowel movement.

(4) A range of mineral elements especially calcium, potassium, sodium, iron, etc.

(5) Adequate quantity of water.

The daily requirement of an average human is 3000 to 3500 calories. This requirement may vary depending mainly upon the age, sex and the amount of physical work that a person may do.


An imbalanced diet is one which does not have all essential requirements in the proper proportion but shows a deficiency or increase in any one or more food constituents mentioned above.

Malnutrition is a condition in which a person suffers a lack or deficiency of one or more essential elements of food in the diet. It causes various deficiency diseases such as kwashiorkor (protein deficiency) goiter, (iodine deficiency) anemia (iron deficiency), muscle cramps, beriberi, and night blindness, depending upon the type of elements deficient in food.

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Table of Contents

16.0 - Introduction
16.1 - Nutritional Requirements, Imbalances and Deficiency Diseases
16.2 - Organs of Digestion and Physiology of Digestion

Chapter 17





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