Figure 16.8 Salivary glands
It is a wide muscular bag placed transversely just below the diaphragm.
It is divisible into cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions.
It is provided with the anterior cardiac sphincter and the posterior
pyloric sphincter, muscles which constrict highly to control
movement of food into and out of the stomach.
e) Small intestine: It is a tube of about
7 meters in length, divisible into an anterior part called the
duodenum, the middle part called jejunum and posterior
part known as the ileum. The duodenum is a C-shaped structure.
The liver and pancreas release their digestive jucies into this.
f) Large intestine: It is a short tube about
1.5 meters long. It is divisible into the anterior colon and
the posterior part called rectum. The colon is differentiated
into ascending, transverse, descending and
sigmoid parts. At the junction of the ileum and colon, there
is a blind pouch called the caecum ending into a small projection
called the appendix. The rectum is the terminal part,
about 12 cm long and opening outside as the anus. This is
surrounded by the voluntary anal sphincter to control defecation.
(2) Associated glands : Apart from the gastric
and intestinal glands embedded in the walls of the stomach and intestine,
there are glands like salivary glands, liver and pancreas which
pour their secretions into the alimentary canal.
(a) Salivary glands : There are three pairs
of salivary glands, namely, sub-lingual, sub-maxillary
and parotids opening into the mouth cavity as shown in Figure
16.7. They secrete saliva while food is being chewed in the mouth
Table of Contents
Nutritional Requirements, Imbalances and Deficiency Diseases
Organs of Digestion and Physiology of Digestion
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