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10.1 Introduction

Thermodynamics is the study of energy and energy changes. Energy is the capacity to work. It is present in various forms like potential energy, kinetic energy, light energy, electrical energy etc.

Energy and energy changes are always calculated in terms of heat energy as there is a natural tendency that all other forms of energy get easily and finally converted into heat energy.

The branch of thermodynamics dealing with energy changes during chemical transformation is called chemical thermodynamics.

Types of thermodynamic systems

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Homogenous system : A system is homogenous when it has some chemical composition throughout. e.g. mixture of gases or true solution of solid in liquid.

Heterogenous system : Two or more different phases which are homogenous but separated by a boundary. e.g. Ice in water.


10.1 Introduction
10.2 First Law of Thermodynamics
10.3 Enthalpy
10.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics
10.5 Gibb's Free Energy
10.6 Absolute Entropies

Chapter 11

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