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Classification of Organic Compounds

I. Classification based on structures :

(1) Acyclic compounds :- Atoms link together to form a chain (straight or branch) but not rings.

(2) Cyclic or closed chain compounds :- These are compounds with one or more rings. Molecules with more than one ring are called polycyclic compounds. These are further divided into

(A) Carbocyclic compounds : with one or more rings solely of carbon. These are of two types.

(i) Alicyclic compounds : Ring compounds composed of carbon atoms and resembling alphatic compounds in their properties.

(ii) Aromatic compounds : The word ‘aromatic’ originated from the Greek word aroma meaning ‘fragrant smell.’ These are unsaturated cyclic compounds containing alternate double bonds (conjugate) having minimum six p -electrons.

In 1865, Kekule suggested that the actual structure of benzene is intermediate the above two structures. Double bonds are not fixed but are in a state of oscillation.

(B) Heterocyclic compounds : These are cyclic compounds which in addition to carbon atoms contain one or more heteroatoms (atoms other than carbon) such as N, O, S in the ring. These are also of two types:

(i) Non-aromatic

(ii) Aromatic

II. Classification based on functional groups

Organic compounds can also be classified according to the nature of the functional group present in them.


13.1 Introduction
13.2 Functional Groups

13.3 Formula of Organic Compounds
13.4 Geometrical Isomerism
13.5 Hydrocarbons
13.6 Homologous Compounds

Chapter 1

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