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  1. Cartwright’s Automatic Loom, 1785: In 1733, John Kay had invented a device called the ’Flying Shuttle’, which speeded up the weaving of cloth. It helped the weaver to do the work of two or three people at a time. In 1785, Dr. Edmund Cartwright invented the Automatic or Power Loom. It could do the work of many people at a time, since it worked on waterpower.

  2. Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1793: Eli Whitney invented a machine called the ’Cotton Gin.’ It separated the seeds from the fibres of raw cotton. So cotton could be produced in large quantities for spinning and weaving of cloth.

Eventually, inventions were made involving new techniques and processes for bleaching, dyeing and printing fabrics.

Basic Industrial Materials

  1. Coal: Wood was used in large quantities as a fuel in Great Britain, before the Industrial Revolution. However, as the supply of timber diminished, and since wood was not able to withstand the strain of new techniques and processes, coal and steel was brought into use by industrialists. Thus coal mining became an important industry.

  2. Davy’s Safety Lamp, 1816: In 1816, Sir Humphry Davy invented a machine called Davy’s Safety Lamp.’ It could save the lives of the miners by giving them a warning,in case of any danger in the mines.

  1. Steel: Large Quantities of iron and steel were required to make new machines. This led to the establishment of smelting plants and foundries in Great Britain. In 1856, Henry Bessemer discovered a process by which impurities could be removed from iron. This purified refined iron came to be known as ’steel’, which helped in making more accurate tools, implements, weapons and machines.

Transport and Communication

  1. MacAdam’s Roads (1756-1836): John MacAdam found out a new process of road building. Heavy stones were placed at the bottom of the roadbed and smaller stones at the top, with a mud-binder between them, in order to produce a hard surface. Later, tar was used in place of mudbinder. These Macadamized roads became popular in Great Britain, and also in the U.S.A., Canada and France.

Exhibit 8.3
Early locomotive engines


8.0 - Introduction
8.1 Meaning
8.2 Features of Industrial Revolution
8.3 Origin of Industrial Revolution
8.4 Course of Industrial Revolution
8.5 Spread of Industrial Revolution
8.6 Consequences of Industrial Revolution
8.7 Dates & Events
8.8 Points to Remember

Chapter 9


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