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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-World History


8.8 Points To Remember

Meaning

  • The great transformation of the methods of production and distribution brought about by a series of discoveries and inventions.

Features of the Industrial Revolution

  • An important change from Domestic to the factory system: a wage tie between labor and capital was brought into existence.

  • The new system enabled mass production which was an unprecedented development.

  • New energy sources and raw materials were being brought into use.

  • Important inventions (the Spinning Jenny, Davy’s Safety Lamp) were made. Science was increasingly applied to industry.

  • Inevitably associated with the Industrial Revolution were socio-economic, political, cultural and psychological changes in the world.

Origin of the Industrial Revolution

  • England was the first country to foster the Industrial Revolution.

  • The country had adequate wealth to promote overseas trade as well as new industries.

  • Political and social stability provided a healthy climate.

  • The Agrarian revolution left a number of people unemployed who could therefore be employed as labor for the new factories.

  • The Continental System of Napoleon encouraged England to purchase cheap raw materials from her colonies and sell finished products (at higher rates) back into the colonies.

  • The Royal Society of London encouraged scientific discoveries.

Course of the Industrial Revolution

  • The textile industry saw a boom with a number of efficient inventions: the Spinning mule, Arkwright’s Water frame, Cartwright’s Power Loom and Whitney’s Cotton Gin.

  • Steel became an important raw material for a better grade of tools and implements.

  • Richard Trevithick introduced the first steam locomotive.

  • Stephenson’s locomotive introduced the concept of speed in the railroads.

  • Thomas Newcomen is remembered for the invention of the first steam engine that could pump water out of mines.

  • Steam power was introduced and gained importance as a powerful motive force.

  • In the agricultural sphere, important contributions were Tull’s seed drill, crop rotation and the concept of scientific breeding.

Spread of the Industrial Revolution

  • The industrial revolution spread from England into the whole of Europe.

  • France came to be known for its textiles, Germany established a lead in fine metal industry while the U.S.A. set up a strong industrial empire.

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Index

8.0 - Introduction
8.1 Meaning
8.2 Features of Industrial Revolution
8.3 Origin of Industrial Revolution
8.4 Course of Industrial Revolution
8.5 Spread of Industrial Revolution
8.6 Consequences of Industrial Revolution
8.7 Dates & Events
8.8 Points to Remember

Chapter 9





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