1.3c The Great Compromise
The small states were content to allot one vote to
each state in legislative matters. However the large states wanted
representation based on population. The Convention compromised
by allotting two senators to each state, whatever its size,
and enabling the membership of the House of Representatives to be
based on population, with the provision that there should be at least
one representative for each state. This compromise frequently called
the Connecticut Compromise.
1.3d Decisions on slavery
The slave-holding states (the southern states)
wanted the slaves to be counted in population totals, for the purpose
of representation. However, they did not want them to be counted
for the purpose of allocating direct taxes to the states. The Convention
then compromised by counting three-fifth of the slaves for
both purposes. Though the Congress could regulate foreign trade,
it was to have no power over the slave trade until 1808. The Congress
was also forbidden to lay duties on exports.
1.3e Compromise over the Election of the President
An Electoral College would elect the President
for a period of four years. It was provided that if no candidate
received a majority of the electoral vote, the House of Representatives,
voting by states, should proceed to elect a President from among the
five highest candidates.