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The study of phenomena obtained through the perceptions of eye, i.e. 'vision' constitutes geometrical and physical optics. The inquiry into the nature of light has lead us to recognize light as a small part of the Electro-magnetic spectrum on one hand and as the beam of photons on the other, forcing us to accept wave particle duality as the fundamental tenet of nature.

The scope of presentation here however is limited at present to the wave nature of light. Later on in "Modern Physics" we shall introduce the necessity of the particle nature of light, in order to understand the interaction of light with matter on atomic and sub-atomic scales.

It is common knowledge that light travels in a straight lineas we can talk about a ray or a pencil or a beam of light. The changes in the path of ray of the light, when it falls on opaque or transperant surfaces, occur according to empirical laws obtained from experiments study of these changes and resulting image formations is the concern of geometrical optics.



16.1 Laws of Reflection at plane surfaces
16.2 Mirrors
16.3 Laws of Refraction at plane surfaces, Refractive Index and Critical Angle
16.4 Refraction at curved spherical surfaces and Lens makerís formula
16.5 Lenses
16.6 Refraction in Prisms, Prism Formula
16.7 Dispersion of Light, Angular Dispersion and Dispersive Power
16.8 Optical Instruments and Magnifying Power

Chapter 17

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