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16.4 Refraction at Curved Spherical Surfaces and Lens maker's Formula

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O : Point object, OP = u = Object Distance
P : Pole, C : centre of curvature, PC = R = Radius of curvature I : Point Image, PI = v = Image distance
i, r, a, b, g are small enough for sin i ~ i ~ tan i to hold etc.
n1 and n2 refractive indices of rarer & denser media (with respect to vacuum or air as incidence medium) ;

Note :

(1) The formula holds for concave refracting surfaces as well.

(2) The formula holds even if the incidence medium is denser and the refracting medium is rarer i.e. n1 > n2



16.1 Laws of Reflection at plane surfaces
16.2 Mirrors
16.3 Laws of Refraction at plane surfaces, Refractive Index and Critical Angle

16.4 Refraction at curved spherical surfaces and Lens makerís formula
16.5 Lenses
16.6 Refraction in Prisms, Prism Formula
16.7 Dispersion of Light, Angular Dispersion and Dispersive Power
16.8 Optical Instruments and Magnifying Power

Chapter 17

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