4) Ogives or Cumulative Frequency Curves:
When frequencies are added, they are called cumulative frequencies.
The curve obtained by plotting cumulating frequencies is called
a cumulative frequency curve or an ogive ( pronounced ojive ).
To construct an Ogive:
1) Add up the progressive totals of frequencies, class by class, to get the cumulative frequencies.
2) Plot classes on the horizontal ( xaxis ) and cumulative frequencies on the vertical ( yaxis).
3) Join the points by a smooth curve. Note that Ogives start at (i) zero on the vertical axis, and (ii) outside class limit of the last class. In most of the cases it looks like 'S'. Note that cumulative frequencies are plotted against the 'limits' of the classes to which they refer.
(A) Less than Ogive: To plot a less than ogive, the data is arranged in ascending order of magnitude and the frequencies are cumulated starting from the top. It starts from zero on the yaxis and the lower limit of the lowest class interval on the xaxis.
(B) Greater than Ogive: To plot this ogive, the data are arranged in the ascending order of magnitude and frequencies are cumulated from the bottom. This curve ends at zero on the the yaxis and the upper limit of the highest class interval on the xaxis.
Illustrations: On a graph paper, draw the
two ogives for the data given below of the I.Q. of 160 students.
Class intervals :60  70 70  80 80  90 90  100 100  110 No. of students : 2 7 12 28 42
110  120 120  130 130  140 140  150 150  160 36 18 10 4 1
