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17.6 The Period of Détente (1970 - 1980)

From 1970 onwards there was détente or cessation of the strained relations between the US and the Soviet Union.

On August 12, 1970, the Moscow-Bonn Agreement was signed by Kosygin, Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany. Following this, Brandt initiated measures for resolving the Berlin problem. On September 3, 1971, the US, the Soviet Union, Britain and France signed an Agreement on Berlin.

When the civil war in Cambodia (Kampuchea) ended in April 1975. With this, the cold war came to an end at another front.

The Vietnam war ended on April 1975, with the defeat of the American forces. Both North and South Vietnam were united, thus silencing another center of the cold war.

In 1971, Dr. Kissinger paid a visit to Peking (Beijing), via Pakistan. In February 1972, President Nixon visited China. The US agreed to withdraw all her forces and military installations from Taiwan.

In May 1972, President Nixon visited Moscow and signed the Treaty on Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems and the Interim Agreement on certain measures. Brezhnev paid a return visit to the US in June 1973. Together with Nixon, he pledged to work for a lasting world peace and make an effort to end the nuclear race between the two countries. President Nixon visited the Soviet Union in June July 1974, and agreed with Brezhnev to limit underground testing for five years.


The next summit was held at Vladivostok in November 1974. It was attended by President Ford and Brezhnev. They agreed on a limit on the number of offensive nuclear weapons like missiles launched from land, sea and air bombers and multiple warhead missiles. Both these leaders also attended the 35-Nation Summit Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe on July 30 1975 at Helsinki.

The US, the Soviet Union and Great Britain concluded a Treaty in February 1971, for the prohibition of the deployment of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction on the sea bed, ocean floor, and the sub-soil thereof. On March 26, 1979, the Camp David Accord between Egypt and Israel was signed to reduce tension in the Middle East.

However, the period of détente between the super powers ended with the occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union in December 1979 and her refusal to vacate that country, even when asked to do so, by the US.

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Index

17.0 - Introduction
17.1 - The Development of the Cold War
17.2 - The Cold War between 1945 and 1947
17.3 - The Cold War between 1947 and 1953
17.4 - The Cold War between 1953 and 1963
17.5 - The Cold War between 1963 and 1970
17.6 - The period of Detente(1970 - 1980)
17.7 - The Cold War after 1980
17.8 - The meaning of Disarmament
17.9 - Reduction of weapons Nuclear and Conventional
17.10 - Disarmament and the UN
17.11 - The Hazards of Nuclear War
17.12 - The Non-Military Dimension of Nuclear Energy
17.13 - Dates & Events

Chapter 18





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