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  1. In 1800, parliamentary laws in England forbid the formation of trade unions. In 1825, some liberals persuaded Parliament to legalize trade unions. After this, many trade unions were formed everywhere in Europe and in the U.S.A. Their main demands included an eight- hour workday, the right of trade unions to bargain collectively with the employer, sanitary and safer working conditions, enhanced wages and prohibition of child labor.

  2. In 1867, the Reform Act was passed, permitting the workers of Great Britain to enjoy these political rights. In the U.S.A. as well as in most of the industrialized countries of Europe, workers were allowed to enjoy political rights.

  3. The workers then agitated for social legislation that would improve their working and living conditions. In 1880, Germany, under Chancellor Bismarck, undertook social legislation providing for accident insurance, regulation of child labor, maximum hours of work, old age insurance and inspection and supervision of factories and mines by government. Other countries also imitated Germany’s attempt to aid labor.

Exhibit 8.5
An artist’s view of Industrial England

E. Growth of Socialism and Communism

Social evils sprang up, owing to the factory system and communism. Some early socialists like Saint Simon, Charles Fourier, Louis Blanc and Robert Owen stood up to remove these evils. They were called the Utopians. The socialist movement was a peaceful one upto 1848. It aimed at eliminating the capitalist class and substituting some form of working class ownership and control of the means of production.

Exhibit 8.6
The father of Communism: Karl Marx

In 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels issued the ’Communist Manifesto’ which introduced scientific socialism or Communism. Later, in 1867, Marx and Engels published the first of three volumes, entitled Das Kapital, in which they explained the sum and substance of Marxian Socialism or Communism. The ideas of Marx influenced world thought. Thereafter Soviet Russia adopted Communism, while other European countries like Britain and France began to follow socialism.


8.0 - Introduction
8.1 Meaning
8.2 Features of Industrial Revolution
8.3 Origin of Industrial Revolution
8.4 Course of Industrial Revolution
8.5 Spread of Industrial Revolution
8.6 Consequences of Industrial Revolution
8.7 Dates & Events
8.8 Points to Remember

Chapter 9


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