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10.5 Imperialism in Asia

The British, the French, the Dutch, the Portuguese and the Germans, also attempted to extend their imperialist rivalries into Asia.

1. British Imperialism

The foundation of the British Empire in India, was laid by Robert Clive by winning the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Thereafter Warren Hastings and Lord Wellesley forced most of the Indian rulers to submission. Finally Lord Dalhousie, by his Policy of Lapse, annexed much of the territories of the Indian princes. This completed the work of the British conquest of India by 1856. After the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, British India was transferred from the hands of the East India Company, to those of the British Crown.

In the 1880ís Great Britain added Burma on the east and Baluchistan on the west. In southern Asia, she secured Singapore and Mallacce with the Federated Malay States. A third of the island of Borneo was also appropriated. In southwestern Asia, Great Britain obtained a series of protectorates form Aden to Kuwait. They had a sphere of influence in southern Persia. Great Britain secured Hong Kong from China. After 1898, a privileged position was obtained in Tibet and the Yangtze Valley.

2. French Imperialism in Asia

In 1850, Napoleon III of France secured a part of Anam. The French added Cambodia in 1864, Kochin-China in 1867, Tonkin in 1873 and later the whole of Anam. All these regions were united to make French Indo-China. In India, France held Chandranagar, Yonaan, Pondicherry, Karikal and Mahe. In 1899, France leased Kungchow form China. It secured a privileged position in the Chinese provinces of Kwangsi and Hainan.

3. Dutch Imperialism in Asia

In Asia, the Dutch established the Dutch East Indian Empire. The Empire was greatly extended by the conquest of the islands of Sumatra, Java, Celebes, part of Borneo and half of New Guinea.

4. Portuguese Imperialism in Asia

The Portuguese had comparatively a small empire in Asia, consisting of a few trading ports in India, the port of Macao in China and half of the east Indian islands of Timor.

5. German Imperialism in Asia

Germany had acquired the northeastern part of New Guinea in the 1880ís and renamed it Kaiser Wilhelmsland, and in 1898 leased from China, a part of Kiochow.

6. Russian Imperialism in Asia

Russia held Siberia and after 1850, it pushed its frontier through Turkestan and other areas of west central Asia to the borders of India, Afghanistan and Persia. It also, secured a sphere of influence in northern Persia in 1907.

Exhibit 10.2
European colonies in Asia

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10.0 - Introduction
10.1 Meaning
10.2 Causes
10.3 Forms and Techniques of Imperialism
10.4 Imperialism in Africa
10.5 Imperialism in Asia
10.6 Significance and Consequences of Imperialism
10.7 Points to Remember

Chapter 11


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