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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-World History

16.3 Rise of Modern China

At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, there was a national awakening in China. The factors responsible for this rise of nationalism were the ruthless economic exploitation of the country by the European imperialists. Besides this, the social, economic and political exploitation of the Chinese by the reigning Manchu dynasty in collaboration with the Chinese landlords and the warlords, resulted in great poverty in China. This aggravated the nationalist spirit of the masses.

In 1900 the Boxer Rebellion broke out, with the aim of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty and of expelling all foreigners from the soil of China. However this rebellion was ruthlessly crushed by the combined armed forces of England, Russia, Germany, Japan and the U.S.A. In 1901, China was forced to accept the humiliating terms of the Treaty of Peking with the European powers.

In 1894, Dr. Sun Yat Sen, Father of New China founded the Chinese Revival Society, later called the Kuo-Min-Tang or Peoplesí National Party. Dr. Sun developed a philosophy of nationalism for China. His ideology was "nationalistic, anti-dynastic, increasingly anti-monarchical and finally republican."

In 1911, there was a revolution which overthrew the Manchu dynasty; this dynasty had continued to rule for 268 years. China became a Republic, with Dr. Sun as the first President. Soon, internal strife began, since General Yuan, who was in charge of the Northern Provinces, wished to head the government of the republic. In order to maintain the unity and solidarity of the Chinese nation, Dr. Sun resigned in favor of General Yuan. However General Yuan began to govern China dictatorially.

During the World War I, a civil war broke out, resulting in the establishment of two rival governments; one was centered at Peking in the North and the other at Canton in the South. There were many local military rulers in many provinces.

The nationalists under Dr. Sun were driven out of Peking in this civil strife. They established a rival government at Canton. In 1921, Dr. Sun was elected President of the Chinese Republic. Dr. Sunís national philosophy consisted of three main ideals:

(1) Nationalism, i.e. to make China a nation-state and to free it from foreign control;

(2) Sovereignty of the people, i.e. establishment of democracy in the country and

(3) Socialism i.e. "the needs of all, should be supplied, as far as possible, by the efforts of all."

However, before achieving his goal, Dr. Sun expired on March 12, 1925.

Dr. Sun Yat Sen was succeeded by General Chiang Kai Shek, his trusted follower. In June 1928, Chiang Kai Shek led his armies into Peking and overthrew the Peking government. The unification of all China, under the Kuo-Min-Tang, was thus nearly complete. Chiang Kai Shek became the head of the government of United China. However, politically and economically, the government of Chiang Kai Shek was so weak, that it could not prevent Japan, from annexing Manchuria in 1931.

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16.0 Introduction
16.1 - The Causes Of The Rise Of Nationalism In Asia
16.2 - Emergence Of India As A Nation
16.3 - Rise Of Modern China
16.4 - Rise Of Modern Japan
16.5 - National Awakening In South East Asia
16.6 - National Awakening In Arab Lands
16.7 - Israel
16.8 - African Nationalism
16.9 - Nationalism In Latin America
16.10 - Dates & Events

Chapter 17


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